Uses Proof of Staked Authority.
Blocks are produced by a limited set of
Validators take turns to produce blocks in a
PoA manner, similar to Ethereum’s Clique
Validator set are elected in and out based
on a staking based governance.
Block time is around 5 seconds or shorter.
It requires limited time to confirm the
finality of transactions, e.g. around 1-min
level or shorter.
There is no inflation of native token: BNB,
block reward is collected from
transaction fees, and it will be paid in BNB.
Anyone can compete to join as candidates to
elect as a validator.
The staking status decides the
top 21 most staked nodes to be
the next validator set, and such an election
will repeat every 24 hours.
BNB is the token used to stake for BSC.
Security and Finality
Users are encouraged to wait until receiving
blocks sealed by more than ⅔*N+1 different
Uses slashing logic to penalize Byzantine
double signing or
Slashing logic aims to expose the malicious
validators in a very short time and make the
“Clone Attack” very hard or extremely
non-beneficial to execute.
All the BSC validators in the current
validator set will be rewarded with
transaction fees in BNB.
The reward for validators is the fees
collected from transactions in each block.
Validators can decide how much to give back
to the delegators who stake
their BNB to them, in order to attract more
Every validator will take turns to produce
the blocks in the same probability (if they
stick to 100% liveness), thus, in the long
run, all the stable validators may get a
similar size of the reward.
Some parts of the gas fee rewarded to
relayers (who are they?) for
BNB Chain Whitepaper
Relayers are responsible to submit
Cross-Chain Communication Packages between
the two blockchains. There are two different
types of Relayers.
Relayers for BC to BSC communication
referred to as BSC Relayers.
Relayer is a standalone process that can be
run by anyone, and anywhere, except that
Relayers must register themselves onto BSC
and deposit a certain refundable amount of
Relayers for BSC to BC communication are
using the “Oracle” model, and so-called
Each of the validators must, and only the
ones of the validator set, run Oracle
Relayers. Each Oracle Relayer watches the
blockchain state change. Once it catches
Cross-Chain Communication Packages, it will
submit to vote for the requests.